As modern dairy cows continue to reach higher milk production records, the application of these technologies seems to extend to many other feed additives to precisely meet cows’ nutrient requirements.About the authors Mohsen Sahraei Belverdy received a Ph D degree in Ruminant Nutrition from the Department of Animal and Poultry Science, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran in 2019.
As modern dairy cows continue to reach higher milk production records, the application of these technologies seems to extend to many other feed additives to precisely meet cows’ nutrient requirements.About the authors Mohsen Sahraei Belverdy received a Ph D degree in Ruminant Nutrition from the Department of Animal and Poultry Science, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran in 2019.Tags: How To Write Helper In HindiActuarial Science Intern Cover LetterWrite My Thesis PaperCreating An Argument For An EssayThe Structure Of An Essay PlanResearch Paper On Green Marketing
Contrastingly, the disadvantages of this protection method include low payloads of the active material and its limited post-ruminal release and absorption.
The latter is generally inversely related to the degree of rumen protection.
Materials to be chosen as a coating matrix should have these specific properties to protect the core nutrient/feed from ruminal degradation: .
The capsules must be sufficiently dense to ensure that they do not remain floating at the top layer of the rumen contents for an unlimited time.
The product obtained from this process is called microencapsulate, and it includes both microspheres and microcapsules.
Microcapsules are particles consisting of an inner core containing the active substance, which is covered with a polymer layer constituting the capsule membrane.Lipid coating for bypassing the nutrients of interest to the ruminant intestine has the advantage of using relatively low-cost food-grade materials compared to formulated polymeric coatings.In addition, fats and fatty acids are used almost globally in dairy rations, which further justifies the idea of using the same ingredient as a coating material.Microspheres are matrix systems in which the core is uniformly dispersed and/or dissolved in a polymer network.Microspheres may be homogeneous or heterogeneous depending, respectively, on whether the core is in the molecular state (dissolved) or in the form of particles (suspended).This review will briefly discuss some aspects of microencapsulation, such as the wall material, core ingredients, encapsulation techniques, and some of their uses in ruminants’ feed technology.Originally, most methods related to encapsulation dealt with the protection of hydrophilic compounds such as choline, amino acids, proteins, vitamins, enzymes, carbohydrates, drugs, and hormones.Spray cooling and spray chilling are two commercially available encapsulation processes that both involve dispersing the core material within a melted lipid through homogenization process.Here, the mixture of core and lipid wall is atomized in the low-temperature air causing the fat to solidify around the core, thereby forming a crude encapsulated product.As the particles spread on the disk, a thin film of shell material is applied.When they move toward the edge of the rotating disk through centrifugal force, the particles leave apart from the fat film and microcapsules of core-shell are formed Various techniques are now available to protect single nutrients from ruminal degradation, some of which were briefly discussed above.