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The most common methods of neuroimaging relevant to music therapy are functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG).f MRI explores how different parts of the brain respond to external stimuli (i.e.
These papers have been written with a particular audience in mind—that is, the learners who participate in the MOOC, who may not have had previous readings in any of the fields being canvassed.
We hope that you find these articles interesting, whether reading as a MOOC learner, a regular As a clinician, researcher, and manager at various points in my career I have been fascinated by how the profession of music therapy interfaces with neuroscience on many levels, and how this interface can inform our work with diverse clinical populations.
A natural consequence of this overlap is the host of research collaborations between neuroscientists, music therapists, and other medical professions outlined in this paper.
This evolving field is underpinned by three aspects of neuroscience that are especially helpful to music therapy, enabling clinicians and researchers to: Mindful of space constraints, this paper will explore the implications for the music therapy profession from the literature in this evolving field in the last two areas only, offering readers pointers for further reading throughout.
music) in a resting state, and how the shape and connectivity of brain regions change over time.
Blood flow responses to neural activity resulting from a change in blood-oxygen levels (blood oxygenation level dependent or BOLD changes) are measured, providing fine grained 3-D images to a high level of accuracy in terms of locating specifically where brain activity is.
EEG uses two reference and 19 or more passive electrodes placed on the scalp, using paste or head caps, in standardised locations corresponding to brain areas.
Recordings may be analysed to explore measures of to complex sensory stimuli such as differences in timbre, or musical incongruities, with miss-match negativity (MMN) methods (for an overview: Shanbao, Tong, & Thankor, 2009).
As a consequence of these collaborations, neuroscientific understanding is emerging of how music therapy may support improvements in cognition, movement and emotional regulation, as well as helping us to explore the neurological aspects of therapeutic relationships.
This paper provides an overview of this field of investigation, focussing on the significant areas of progress in work with those living with stroke, neurodegenerative conditions, affective disorders, disorders of consciousness, autism, cancer and palliative conditions.