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Several psychologists suggest that people who are self-confident are more willing to examine evidence that both supports and contradicts their attitudes.Meanwhile, people who are less self-confident about their perspective and are more defensive about them may prefer proattitudinal information over materials that challenge their perspectives.Others have found that new information about an individual's performance interacts with an individual's prior self-confidence about their ability to perform.
The concept of self-confidence is commonly used as self-assurance in one's personal judgment, ability, power, etc.
One's self confidence increases from experiences of having mastered particular activities.
A meta-analysis of 12 articles found that generally when individuals attribute their success to a stable cause (a matter under their control) they are less likely to be confident about being successful in the future.
If an individual attributes their failure to an unstable cause (a factor beyond their control, like a sudden and unexpected storm) they are more likely to be confident about succeeding in the future.
Leon Festinger found that self-confidence in an individual's ability may only rise or fall where that individual is able to compare themselves to others who are roughly similar in a competitive environment.
Furthermore, when individuals with low self-confidence receive feedback from others, they are averse to receiving information about their relative ability and negative informative feedback, and not averse to receiving positive feedback.Therefore, if an individual believes he/she and/or others failed to achieve a goal (e.g.give up smoking) because of a factor that was beyond their control, he or she is more likely to be more self-confident that he or she can achieve the goal in the future.During the Great Depression, Philip Eisenberg and Paul Lazerfeld noted how a sudden negative change in one's circumstances, especially a loss of a job, could lead to decreased self-confidence, but more commonly if the jobless person believes the fault of his unemployment is his.They also noted how if individuals do not have a job long enough, they became apathetic and lost all self-confidence.Some studies suggest various factors within and beyond an individual's control that affect their self-confidence.Hippel and Trivers propose that people will deceive themselves about their own positive qualities and negative qualities of others so that they can display greater self-confidence than they might otherwise feel, thereby enabling them to advance socially and materially.cook a good meal or write a good novel) even though they may lack general self-confidence, or conversely be self-confident though they lack the self-efficacy to achieve a particular task (e.g. These two types of self-confidence are, however, correlated with each other, and for this reason can be easily conflated.(where it seemed to connote arrogance and be a negative attribute.) In 1890, the philosopher William James in his Principles of Psychology wrote, “Believe what is in the line of your needs, for only by such belief is the need fulled ...In children, self-confidence emerges differently than adults.For example, Fenton suggested that only children as a group are more self-confident than other children. In general, students who perform well have increased confidence which likely in turn encourages students to take greater responsibility to successfully complete tasks.