Programs and servers referring to these steps are listed in table 1.
The starting point in comparative modelling is to identify protein structures related to the target sequence and then to select those that will be used as templates.
Comparative modeling is becoming an increasingly helpful technique in microbial cell factories as the knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of a protein would be an invaluable aid to solve problems on protein production.
For this reason, an introduction to comparative modeling is presented, with special emphasis on the basic concepts, opportunities and challenges of protein structure prediction.
However, bacterial organisms often fail to produce target proteins due to problems related with protein misfolding and protein glycosilation.
Protein Modelling Research Papers
Yeast and fungal protein expression systems are used for the industrial production of relevant enzymes in such cases .All current comparative modeling methods consist of four sequential steps: template selection, target-template alignment, model building and model evaluation.Essentially, this is an iterative procedure until a satisfactory model is obtained (Figure 1).In this process a variety of programs and web servers can be used (Table 1).Additionally, protein modeling meta-servers are emerging. They automatically implement the full process in a multi-step protocol, using simultaneously different methods .Microbial cell factories play a key role in this context.This review is intended to give a primer addressed to scientists of disciplines related to microbial cell factories who has no expertise in comparative modeling.Its aim is to build a three-dimensional model for a protein of unknown structure on the basis of sequence similarity to proteins of known structure .Comparative modeling relies on the fact that structure is more conserved than sequence during evolution.Therefore, similar sequences exhibit nearly identical structures, and even distantly related sequences share the same fold [7, 8].Comparative modeling critically depends on the knowledge of three-dimensional structure of homologous proteins.