In an intermediate position in the hierarchy is the resource nurse, a staff nurse with more experience than the others, who assumes direct care of patients as the other staff nurses do, but also takes on tasks to ensure the smooth operation of the entire facility.The writer has documented Chase’s material and specific language (by direct reference to the author and by quotation marks around language taken directly from the source).
This person oversees the hour-by-hour functioning of the unit as a whole, such as considering expected admissions and discharges of patients, ascertaining that beds are available for patients in the operating room, and covering sick calls. They are the most experienced of all the staff nurses. And if quotation marks did appear around all these phrases, this paragraph would be so cluttered that it would be unreadable.
The nurse clinician has a separate job description and provides for quality of care by orienting new staff, developing unit policies, and providing direct support where needed, such as assisting in emergency situations. at the top and the least senior staff nurses at the bottom.
Even if you use your own words, if you obtained the information or ideas you are presenting from a source, you must document the source.
Information: If a piece of information isn’t common knowledge (see below), you need to provide a source.
For instance, you may not need to cite a reference to Piaget’s developmental stages in a paper for an education class or give a source for your description of a commonly used method in a biology report—but you must be sure that this information is so widely known within that field that it will be shared by your readers. And in the case of both general and field-specific common knowledge, if you use the exact words of the reference source, you must use quotation marks and credit the source.
In general, use direct quotations only if you have a good reason. Also, it’s often conventional to quote more extensively from sources when you’re writing a humanities paper, and to summarize from sources when you’re writing in the social or natural sciences–but there are always exceptions.
The clinical nurse specialist in this unit is mostly involved with formal teaching in orienting new staff. The experts — the nurse manager, nurse clinician, and clinical nurse specialist — are not involved directly in patient care.
The nurse manager, nurse clinician, and clinical nurse specialist are the designated experts. The resource nurse is seen as both a caregiver and a resource to other caregivers. The staff nurses, in contrast, This paraphrase is a patchwork composed of pieces in the original author’s language (in red) and pieces in the student-writer’s words, all rearranged into a new pattern, but with none of the borrowed pieces in quotation marks.
If all these phrases were in red, the paraphrase would look much like the “patchwork” example.
The difference is that the phrases in the legitimate paraphrase are all precise, economical, and conventional designations that are part of the shared language within the nursing discipline (in the too-close paraphrases, they’re red only when used within a longer borrowed phrase).