As Patroklos is dying, he is aware that he is a scapegoat and that it was not Hektor, but Apollo who was his "deadly destiny," because Apollo inspired him to attack the wall even though Achilles had instructed him specifically not to do so.
Patroklos thus realizes that by taking Achilles' place in battle, he has become the means by which Achilles' return to the war is assured.
Later, after Patroklos has returned from Nestor's camp, his deep sensitivity to the Achaian losses and the death of his friends is apparent.
When he asks Achilles' permission to enter the war, Achilles compares him to a "silly little girl," and while Achilles' comment underscores Patroklos' obedient sensitivity, it also indicates Patroklos' dependence upon Achilles and shows a strong emotional bond that activates Achilles' wrath after Patroklos' death.
The violation of the bowels and the liver, organs that process the body’s waste, release filth into the dying men’s bodies, further degrading them.
Homer also draws attention to the way war not only destroys but dehumanizes the Achaean and Trojan soldiers, bringing out their base, animalistic natures.
Even though Patroklos is an important character in the Iliad, Homer gives little attention to him until the ninth book, and even then, the focus is not on Patroklos himself, but on his relationship to Achilles.
In fact, one rarely sees Patroklos as an individual.
There is no dramatic character development, but one does see Patroklos as a character perpetrates dramatic events and provides a clearer understanding of Achilles.
Patroklos' main purpose in the Iliad is to bring Achilles back into the war.